(Oriolus monacha) Wing 128 – 145 mm
Ethiopia Black Headed Oriole distribution, numbers, time of nesting and life history of the Black Headed Forest Oriole are not clearly understood because of the difficulty of distinguishing it from the Black Headed Oriole (Oriolus Larvatus). The two are separable by the color of parts of wings feathers, features that are not easy to see in the field. The outer margins of the flight feathers (primaries) and the outer secondaries of the Forest Oriole are grey; the inner secondaries, mainly olivaceous – yellow, are edged in grey on the inner webs. The outer margins of the primaries and outer secondaries of the Black Headed Oriole are white; the inner secondaries, mainly black, are edged in pale yellow on the outer webs. In the field the two species are partially separable by habitats, the haunts of each differing somewhat. The Black Headed Forest Oriole inhabits evergreen forest (olive, podocarpus) and juniper woods of the highlands; it is absent in lowland dry acacia thorn scrub country. The Black Headed Oriole lives in the lowland dry acacia thorn scrub country and the juniper woods of the highlands; it does not inhabit the highland evergreen forest. The Black Headed Forest Oriole occurs in the western and southeastern highlands, the Rift Valley and southern Ethiopia from about 1200 – 3200 meters (4000 – 10,500 feet). It is frequent in the north, common to abundant in the south. It breeds in August and possibly July. It has three calls: a rich and loud “li”, a harsh “skaa – skaa” and three or four liquid whistling notes slurred together. The nest, eggs and other aspect of its life history have not been described.